Congress Says Removal Of Alok Verma Has Prompted Opposition Parties to Unite Against Modi Govt in CBI fraud

Congress Says Removal Of Alok Verma Has Prompted Opposition Parties to Unite Against Modi Govt in CBI fraud

Communist Party of India's Rajya Sabha MP D. Raja, left, speaks with Congress party president Rahul Gandhi during the protest march towards the Central Bureau of Investigation (CBI) headquarters in New Delhi.

NEW DELHIOn Friday morning, as Congress party leaders walked from Lodhi Road to the CBI headquarters in New Delhi to protest the government's perceived interference with the country's premier investigative agency, they were joined by Trinamool Congress's (TMC) Rajya Sabha MP Md. Nadimul Haque, Communist Party of India's (CPI) Rajya Sabha MP D Raja and former Rajya Sabha MP Sharad Yadav.

"Opposition parties are coming together on this issue," said Rajeev Gowda Rajya Sabha MP and Chairman of the Congress' research department, in an interview with HuffPost India after the protest.
When asked what prompted him to participate in the Congress party's march, TMC MP Haque confirmed Gowda's statement. "My party sent me as a mark of solidarity with the issue. I got a call from the party spokesperson yesterday to go and represent the TMC at this march," he said. When asked if, in the near future, there will unanimity between the Congress party and the TMC on this issue, he said, "Yes, definitely."

As the biggest opposition party, the Congress was out on the streets in several cities in protest more than a week after indications resurfaced about corruption within the CBI.
The presence of other opposition party members, Congressmen believe, shows the CBI director's removal has helped add to the small but steadily growing list of issues around which the thus far elusive unity of opposition parties against the Narendra Modi-led government could be built.
This is significant for the state of play in the national politics because, in the recent past, the assembly state election campaigns have revealed just how brittle opposition unity is at present. The decision of Bahujan Samaj Party supremo Mayawati as well as Samajwadi Party Chief Akhilesh Yadav to go it alone in Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh and Chhattisgarh elections proved that a united electoral alliance appears to be easier said than done.

Therefore, issues around which the opposition finds a common ground reflect a potential space for a united national opposition against the incumbent regime. Several Congress and non-Congress leaders who participated in Friday's protest march told HuffPost India that the sacking of CBI director has created space for the opposition to come together against the government. Apart from Friday's protest, it appears the parties are now planning to petition the president seeking his intervention in the matter.

CPI's Rajya Sabha MP D Raja said, this was one of a significant number of other recent issues around which opposition parties have been coming together and will continue to do so. The momentum on this joint opposition protest will remain, in the forthcoming days, he said and "we will together approach the president with a memorandum as soon as he gives time."
Other issues that he referred to regarding opposition unity include the Rafale deal, which is being referred to as a scam, Non-performing assets of public sector banks etc.

5 Most horror Movies : Must Know About Them

5 Most horror Movies : Must Know About Them

If you are searching for the most horror movies than you are at right place. Halloween is right around the corner and we are gearing up for a weekend filled with spooky fun that defines the season. The best way to get into the spirit of Halloween is to treat yourself to some great horror films. There are plenty of films centered around the scariest night of the year and your choices range from dreary spine-chillers to horror comedies.
This is the right place if you're on the look out for movie suggestions, we've got your back. Grab some popcorn and prepare for a thrilling binge-watching session. We promise you it will make for a fun sleepover!

This is the  list of most horror movies, you can chech it and can enjoy them:-

1. Carrie:- 


Carrie is a 2013 American supernatural horror film, directed by Kimberly Peirce, and is the third film adaptation of Stephen King's 1974 novel of the same name. The film was produced by Kevin Misher, with a screenplay by Lawrence D. Cohen & Roberto Aguirre-Sacasa. The film stars Chloë Grace Moretz as the titular character Carrie White, alongside Julianne Moore as Margaret White. The cast also features Judy Greer, Portia Doubleday, Gabriella Wilde, Ansel Elgort and Alex Russell. The film is a modern re-imagining of King's novel about a shy girl outcast by her peers and sheltered by her deeply religious mother, who uses her telekinetic powers with devastating effect after being a victim of a cruel prank at her senior prom. The film held its world premiere at the Arclight Hollywood in Los Angeles on October 7, 2013 and was released in the United States by Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer and Screen Gems on October 18, 2013. The film received mixed reviews, with critics calling it "unnecessary", criticizing the lack of originality and scares, though praised the modern updates and cast, whilst Moretz' performance was divisive. The film grossed $85 million worldwide at the box office.

2. The Blair Witch Project


The Blair Witch Project is a 1999 American supernatural horror film written, directed and edited by Daniel Myrick and Eduardo Sánchez. It tells the fictional story of three student filmmakers—Heather Donahue, Michael C. Williams, and Joshua Leonard—who hike in the Black Hills near Burkittsville, Maryland in 1994 to film a documentary about a local legend known as the Blair Witch. The three disappeared, but their equipment and footage is discovered a year later. The purportedly "recovered footage" is the film the viewer sees.
Myrick and Sánchez conceived of a fictional legend of the Blair Witch in 1993. They developed a thirty-five page screenplay with the dialogue to be improvised. A casting call advertisement in Backstage magazine was prepared by the directors and Donahue, Williams and Leonard were cast. The film entered production in October 1997, with the principal photography taking place in Maryland for eight days overseen by cinematographer Neal Fredericks. About twenty hours of footage was shot and was edited down to eighty-two minutes.

3. The Babysitter

The Babysitter is a 2017 American teen horror-comedy film directed by McG and written by Brian Duffield. The film stars Samara Weaving, Judah Lewis, Hana Mae Lee, Robbie Amell and Bella Thorne. It was released by Netflix on October 13, 2017, and received positive reviews from critics. 

4. Coraline

Coraline is a 2009 American 3D stop-motion dark fantasy horror film based on Neil Gaiman's 2002 novel of the same name. It was the first feature film produced by Laika and was distributed by Focus Features. The film depicts an adventurous girl finding an idealized parallel world behind a secret door in her new home, unaware that the alternative world contains a dark and sinister secret. Written and directed by Henry Selick, the film was made with Gaiman's approval and co-operation

5. Scream 

Scream is a 1996 American slasher film directed by Wes Craven and written by Kevin Williamson. The film stars David Arquette, Neve Campbell, Courteney Cox, Matthew Lillard, Rose McGowan, Skeet Ulrich, and Drew Barrymore. Released on December 20, 1996, Scream follows the character of Sidney Prescott (Campbell), a high school student in the fictional town of Woodsboro, California, who becomes the target of a mysterious killer known as Ghostface. The film combined black comedy and "whodunit" mystery with the violence of the slasher genre to satirize the clichés of the horror movie genre popularized in films such as Halloween (1978) and Friday the 13th (1980). The film was considered unique at the time of its release for featuring characters who were aware of real world horror films and openly discussed the clichés that Scream attempted to subvert.

Apple to offer 70 new emoji in the upcoming update!

Apple today has confirmed that their upcoming updates for iOS, macOS, and watchOS will offer over 70 new emoji. These will first be available on iPhones and iPads via an update (iOS 12.1), and eventually, make their way to the Apple Watch and Macbooks.

Apart from packing in an array of new characters with red hair, gray hair, and curly hair, there’s a brand new emoji for bald people. The smiley faces now are more emotive and there is a boatload of emoji for animals, sports and food. Unfortunately, this will make the wait harder but if you have registered as an Apple developer, you can download the public beta preview of iOS 12.1 and check them before the worldwide release.
With iOS 12.1 Apple wants to go even more global and to ensure that they have included new emoji for moon cake, red gift envelope, and nazar amulet. We are absolutely thrilled to try out these new emoji characters and will tell you more once we do. Until then it’s back to donning the dinosaur face on iMessages.

The brave little raccoon which can climb up building, leap off, and survive

In Ocean City, New Jersey Friday, a raccoon was spotted a jaw-dropping nine stories up a building. The raccoon proceeded to leap off the building, hit the soft sand with its little raccoon feet, and scamper away.

This isn't the first time a raccoon has been spotted climbing a tall building. In June, a raccoon climbed to the top of a 25-story skyscraper. It was then captured and released safely into the wild.
Where I'm from, raccoons were known for digging into the good trash at McDonald's and giving kids rabies. I'm so glad people get to see the other, better, braver side of raccoons.

IUCN : Critically Endangered Species

Critically Endangered Mammals

  1 Sumatran Rhinoceros
  2 Malabar Civet
  3 Pygmy Hog
  4 Namdapha Flying Squirrel
  5 Chinese Pangolin
  6 The Bornean orangutan
  7 Andaman White-toothed Shrew
  8 Jenkin’s Andaman Spiny Shrew
  9 Nicobar White-tailed Shrew
10 Kondana Rat
11 Elvira Rat
12 Clouded Leopard
13 Elds Deer
14 Himalyan Wolf
15 Hog deer
16 Lion Tailed Macaque
17 Marbled Cat
18 Marsh Mongoose
19 Rhinoceros
20 Red Panda
21 Swamp Deer
22 Wild Ass
23 White Bellied Musk Deer
24 Indian Wolf
25 Wild Buffalo

Critically Endengered Birds

1 Amsterdam albatross
2 Tristan albatross
3 New Zealand storm petrel
4 Guadalupe storm petrel
5 Waved albatross
6 Mascarene petrel
7 Beck's petrel
8 Zapata rail
9 New Caledonian rail
10 Siberian crane
11 Samoan woodhen
12 Red-vented cockatoo
13 Yellow-crested cockatoo
14 Puerto Rican amazon
15 Glaucous macaw
16 Blue-throated macaw
17 Red-throated lorikeet
18 New Caledonian lorikeet
19 Blue-fronted lorikeet
20 Spix's macaw
21 Malherbe's parakeet
22 Polynesian ground dove
23 Purple-winged ground dove
24 Silvery pigeon
25 Blue-eyed ground dove
26 Tooth-billed pigeon
27 Negros bleeding-heart
28 Ridgway's hawk
29 Cuban kite
30 White-backed vulture
31 White-rumped vulture
32 Indian vulture
33 Rüppell's vulture
34 Slender-billed vulture
35 Pernambuco pygmy owl
36 Forest owlet
37 Anjouan scops owl
38 Annobon scops-owl

Critically Endangrered Reptiles 

1 Hawksbill sea turtle
2 Atlantic ridley sea turtles
3 Loggerhead sea turtle
4 Radiated tortoise
5 Angonoka tortoise
6 Santiago giant tortoise
7 Española giant tortoise
8 Burmese star tortoise
9 Southern river terrapin
10 Northern river terrapin
11 Painted terrapin
12 Red-crowned roofed turtle
13 Yellow-headed box turtle
14 Bourret's box turtle
15 Indochinese box turtle
16 Guangxi box turtle
17 Shaanxi box turtle
18 Chinese alligator
19 Orinoco crocodile
20 Philippine crocodile
21 Cuban crocodile
22 Fiji crested iguana
23 Galápagos pink land iguana
24 Utila spiny-tailed iguana
25 Oaxaca spiny-tailed iguana
26 Fiji crested iguana
27 Galápagos pink land iguana
28 Utila spiny-tailed iguana
29 Oaxaca spiny-tailed iguana
30 Zong's odd-scaled snake
31 Sahul reef snake
32 Leaf-scaled sea snake
33 Antiguan racer
34 Alcatrazes lancehead
35 Golden lancehead
36 Tioman reed snake
37 Sandakan reed snake
38 Saint Vincent blacksnake
39 Andasibe big-headed snake
40 Santa Catalina Island rattlesnake

Critically Endangered Fishes 

1 Ganges Shark
2 Pondicherry Shark
3 Large-tooth Sawfish
4 Knife-tooth Sawfish
5 Long-comb Sawfish
6 Blind cave loach
7 Galilean loach
8 Giant salmon carp
9 Long-spine bream
10 Arabian bream
11 Damascus bream
12 Elongate bitterling
13 Central Anatolian bleak
14 Karasu Sha kuli

Best IAS Preparation Tips

Best IAS Preparation Tips 

IAS exam is the most reputed or difficult exam in India. IAS  which means The Indian Administrative Service is a vocation that can not be contrasted with different employments or administrations. The post of an IAS officer is a respect, and subsequently it is pined for by numerous. Along these lines, these are a couple of tips that may help a man in clearing IAS examinations: 
Exam Preparation Tips for IAS

Take It Seriously

The most important part of this exam is ,to it it seriously . If we do any work with our serious efforts , we will successes definitely. We trust that we must ponder 10 hours or more, consistently. Be that as it may, for wanted outcomes, that a man should simply to walk the shrewd way which could mean perusing specifically yet perusing admirably, perusing many books specifically, blending books and notes, making short notes, learning time administration, taking fake tests and so on.

Begin early

After choosing to show up in the exam, arrangements for the same should begin early. To get a thought regarding the sort of inquiries being solicited, explained papers from past years ought to be alluded to. It is additionally important to be refreshed in all fields, for example History, Economy, Polity, and so on and getting the best books for the same.

Daily work

 This is the most difficult exam so we should do our work daily. A man needs to build up some sort of schedule, which would help him to center for extend periods of time and cover the whole syllabus inside the time accessible. A standard graph likewise helps in building up a concentrated approach for Mains and additionally in planning for most scoring parts of IAS Prelims syllabus early.

Each Subject should be studied

With many subjects to get readied for, understudies regularly submit the mix-up of endeavoring to set up at the same time. What they really need to do is stop this multi-entrusting and pick one subject at any given moment. Multi-entrusting may prompt perplexity, loss of fixation and lower yield. It is likewise imperative to not to allude to a larger number of books than are totally required.

Unit test

Keep in mind the school days when the instructor used to have unit tests in each 15 days with a specific end goal to set us up for the last test of the years? We have to assess ourselves similarly, by taking our own particular ridicule tests subsequent to finishing a specific area in a point; with a specific end goal to set ourselves up for the last fight.

Short and handy notes

Making short notes has dependably been a shrewd approach to examine and has dependably helped in
amending rapidly. These notes can be as blaze cards or miniaturized scale notes on subjects like current undertakings, GK, and additionally different GS and discretionary themes.

Read with hard work

The more an understudy peruses for his IAS, the more it will be helpful for him. Perusing a ton is the way to score. The understudies should make it a propensity for perusing daily papers, the most recent financial review, all NCERT reading material and great supplementary books for IAS accessible.

The correct guidance

Keeping in mind the end goal to spare important time and endeavors, understudies should look for quality direction from the best training establishment accessible. These foundations give training in all subjects of the IAS exam. To know which books to peruse, training to join and what system to receive for IAS readiness, IAS toppers, kindred hopefuls and the individuals who have achieved the meeting stage ought to be drawn nearer to.

Set and kick the Goal

In conclusion, the understudy ought to dependably put stock in himself, be sufficiently sure and endeavor to supplicate and contemplate to look for endowments from the god-like. He ought to have a fabulous time while getting ready for IAS and seek after outcomes to be productive.

Budget for Infrastructure and Financial Sector Development

Infrastructure and Financial Sector Development
            Emphasising that infrastructure is the growth driver of economy, the Finance Minister estimated that investment in excess of Rs.50 lakh crore is needed to increase growth of GDP and connect the nation with a network of roads, airports, railways, ports and inland waterways. He announced increase of budgetary allocation on infrastructure for 2018-19 to Rs.5.97 lakh crore against estimated expenditure of Rs.4.94 lakh crore in 2017-18.
            The Government has made an all-time high allocation to rail and road sectors and is committed to further enhance public investment. The Prime Minister personally reviews the targets and achievements in infrastructure sectors on a regular basis.  Using online monitoring system of PRAGATI alone, projects worth 9.46 lakh crore have been facilitated and fast tracked.
            To further boost tourism, the Budget proposes to develop ten prominent tourist sites into Iconic Tourism destinations by following a holistic approach involving infrastructure and skill development, development of technology, attracting private investment, branding and marketing. 
            Under the Bharatmala Pariyojana,  about 35000 kms road construction  in Phase-I at an estimated cost of Rs.5,35,000 crore  has been approved.
            Railways Capital Expenditure for the year 2018-19 has been pegged at Rs.1,48,528 crore.  A large part of the Capex is devoted to capacity creation.  4000 kilometers of electrified railway network is slated for commissioning during 2017-18.  Work on Eastern and Western dedicated Freight Corridors is in full swing.  Adequate number of rolling stock – 12000 wagons, 5160 coaches and approximately 700 locomotives are being procured during 2018-19.  Over 3600 kms of track renewal is targeted during the current fiscal.   Redevelopment of 600 major railway stations is being taken up. 

            Mumbai’s local train network will have 90 kilometers of double line tracks at a cost of over Rs.11,000 crore. 150 kilometers of additional suburban network is being planned at a cost of over Rs.40,000 crore, including elevated corridors on some sections. A suburban network of approximately 160 kilometers at an estimated cost of Rs.17,000 crore is being planned to cater to the growth of the Bengaluru metropolis.

Budget for Employment Generation

Employment Generation
            Reiterating that creating job opportunities is at the core of Government policies, Finance Minister cited an independent study as showing that 70 lakh formal jobs will be created this year.  To carry forward the momentum created by the measures taken during the last 3 years to boost employment generation, Shri Jaitley announced that the Government will contribute 12% of the wages of the new employees in the EPF for all the sectors for next three years.   He proposed  to make amendments in the Employees Provident Fund and Miscellaneous Provisions Act, 1952 to reduce women employees' contribution to 8% for first three years of their employment against existing rate of 12% or 10% with no change in employers' contribution.
            The Budget proposed an outlay of Rs.7148 crore for the textile sector in 2018-19 as against Rs.6,000 Crore in 2016.

Preamble of Indian Constitution

Preamble of Indian Constitution 

The preamble to the Constitution of India is a brief introduction of our constitution that sets out the guiding purpose, principles and philosophy of the constitution. Preamble gives idea about the following : (1) the source of the constitution, (2) nature of Indian state (3) a statement of its objectives and (4) the date of its adoption.

"WE, THE PEOPLE OF INDIA, having solemnly resolved to constitute India into a SOVEREIGN SOCIALIST SECULAR DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC and to secure to all its citizens:
JUSTICE, social, economic and political;
LIBERTY of thought, expression, belief, faith and worship;
EQUALITY of status and of opportunity;
and to promote among them all
FRATERNITY assuring the dignity of the individual and the unity and integrity of the Nation."

The Main Points of About India Are:-

1. Sovereign - India is internally and externally sovereign

2.Socialist - “Socialism” as an economic philosophy where means of production and distribution are owned by the State

3. Secular - Features of secularism as envisaged in the Preamble is to mean that the state will have
no religion of its own and all persons will be equally entitled to the freedom of conscience and the right freely to profess, practice and propagate the religion of their choice.

4. Democratic- Indicates that the Constitution has established a form of Government which gets
its authority from the will of the people

BREXIT : Everything that you should know


 UK voted to leave EU in a referendum held in June 2016. The “leave” side prevailed 52 percent to 48 percent, which had a turnout of 72 percent. Out of 12 regions, only three, Scotland, Northern Ireland, and London voted to remain in the EU, while the others led the “Leave” vote to win by a narrow margin.

• The UK is the first major country to decide to leave the bloc, which evolved from the ashes of the Second World War as the region’s leaders sought to build links and avert future hostility. The Conservative Party's general election victory last year activated a manifesto pledge to hold a referendum on Britain's membership of the European Union by the end of 2017.
• Britain joined the European Community in 1973. This was the second referendum on Britain’s relationship with the European integration project. Labour Prime Minister Harold Wilson had the first referendum on Britain’s membership in 1975 in which 66% people voted to stay in the European Community.
Arguments in favour
1) The EU threatens British sovereignty, is the most common argument. A series of EU treaties have shifted a growing amount of power from individual member states to the central EU bureaucracy in Brussels: On subjects where the EU has been granted authority – like competition policy, agriculture, and copyright and patent law – EU rules override national laws. The EU’s executive branch, called the European Commission, is not directly accountable to voters in Britain or anyone else.
2) EU is strangling UK in burdensome regulations. EU’s regulations have become increasingly onerous. Some EU rules sound simply strange, like the rule that one cannot recycle a teabag, or that children under eight cannot blow up balloons, or the limits on the power of vacuum cleaners.
3) The EU allows too many immigrants which puts severe strain on national resources and add up to welfare expenditure. The emotional case for Brexit is heavily influenced by immigration. The flood of immigrants from Southern and Eastern Europe has depressed the wages of native-born British workers and concerns about immigrants using scarce public services.
4) UK will save huge sums of money which it otherwise contributes to the EU budget. Taxpayers would get an immediate saving of over £20 million a day. British farmers, fishermen and small businesses would all be free from ruinous Brussels policies.
5) UK could pursue independent and beneficial economic and trade policies: The UK economy would thrive like Norway or Switzerland. Britain could negotiate its own trade deals with the likes of China, the United States and Russia on terms tailor-made to suit the national interest. Trade with the EU countries would continue – it will be in their interests to maintain Britain’s access to the European free market
6) EU was a good idea, but Euro is a big disaster. The 2008 global recession was much worse in countries that had adopted Europe’s common currency, the euro. Though the UK chose not to join the common currency, deeper fiscal and political integration will be needed for the eurozone to work properly. Britain is unlikely to go along with it.

Arguments Against
1) Safety first: In an uncertain world where Western democracies are under threat from a resurgent Russia, unrest around the Middle East, terrorism, and nuclear rogue states, Britain is safer and stronger working with France, Germany and the others within the EU on diplomacy, development and building democracy around the world. It helps the fight against international crime through Europol and the European arrest warrant.
2) Better together: Outside the EU, Britain would lose global clout. Europe is one of the four major players on the world scene. As the world’s biggest economic bloc, the EU’s leverage is unmatched in global talks on climate change and WTO issues etc.
3) Useful EU regulations: EU regulations guarantee safety standards on everything from food and toys to nuclear power plants. Its environmental protection is the highest in the world. Brussels’ anti-trust authorities protect consumers against abuses by multinational companies.
4) Sound economic rationale: Over half Britain’s trade goes to the EU, bringing the country around £400 billion a year. That dwarfs any savings from not contributing to the EU budget. Over one-in-ten British jobs are directly linked to EU membership and studies show Brexit could wipe up to 10 percent from UK GDP. International companies invest in Britain because it’s a gateway to the EU’s 500 million consumers. Even if a post-Brexit UK persuaded former partners to grant it Norway-style access to the EU market, it would have to accept EU rules without any say in shaping them.
5) On Migration: In no way will leaving the EU stop immigration to the UK. EU immigration is a great asset to the UK economy, and people from EU countries pay a lot more in taxes than they receive as benefits.
6) In the event of a Brexit, the economic downturn that will follow will make Britain a far less attractive country compared to other parts of Europe. Also it will bring the migration crisis to Britain’s doorstep.
Process of BREXIT
• For the UK to leave the EU it has to invoke Article 50 of the Lisbon Treaty which gives the two sides two years to agree the terms of the split.
• The government will also enact a Great Repeal Bill which will end the primacy of EU law in the UK. It will incorporate EU legislation into UK law, after which the government will decide which parts to keep, change or retain.
• EU law still stands in the UK until it ceases being a member. The UK will continue to abide by EU treaties and laws, but not take part in any decision-making.
• The post-Brexit trade deal is likely to be the most complex part of the negotiation because it needs the unanimous approval of more than 30 national and regional parliaments across Europe, some of whom may want to hold referendums.

Impact of BREXIT on UK
Political Impact
1) British PM David Cameroon had to resign after shock results in referendum and was succeeded by Theresa May.
2) The divisive nature of Brexit referendum has the potential to threaten the territorial integrity of UK. Scotland and Ireland voted to remain in EU. Scotland's termed forced Brexit as democratically unacceptable and calls have been increasing for second independence referendum from UK. Northern Ireland politicians have termed the impact of Brexit would be very profound and that the whole region of Northern Ireland may want to vote on reunification with Ireland.
3) Racist or religious abuse incidents recorded by police in England and Wales jumped 41% in the month after the UK voted to quit the EU.
4) Quitting the EU will not exempt the UK from the decisions of The European Court of Human Rights (ECHR) in Strasbourg as it is not a European Union institution. For it, the UK government has to repeal the Human Rights Act which requires UK courts to treat the ECHR as setting legal precedents for the UK.

Economic Impact
1) The UK economy appears to have weathered the initial shock of the Brexit vote, although the value of the pound remains near a 30-year low. Britain also lost its top AAA credit rating, meaning the cost of government borrowing will be higher.
2) With Brexit, fears have been raised that London may lose its prominence place as financial Hub in Europe in the long run.
3) The complex exit negotiations with EU may accentuate economic uncertainty at least for two year which may hamper economic recovery and there are chances of investments moving from Britain to other EU countries due to higher perceived economic benefits there.
4) As far as UK citizens working in the EU are concerned, a lot depends on the kind of deal the UK agrees with the EU. If it remains within the single market, it would almost certainly retain free movement rights, allowing UK citizens to work in the EU and vice versa. If the government opted to impose work permit restrictions, then other countries could reciprocate, meaning Britons would have to apply for visas to work.
5) EU nationals living in UK with a right to permanent residence, which is granted after they have lived in the UK for five years, will be be able to stay. The rights of other EU nationals would be subject to negotiations on Brexit and the will of Parliament.

Political Impact
1) Brexit will weaken those forces in the EU that favour greater integration and may trigger chain reactions of referendums being pushed by Eurosceptics especially in Netherland and France. It may also strengthen far right and anti-establishment parties throughout Europe at the cost of European unity.
2) Britain’s exit will reduce political clout of EU in world Affairs because of loosing UK - a permanent member of United Nations Security Council (UNSC).
3) Britain is the EU’s foremost military power and also brings to the EU its significant diplomatic network, intelligence capabilities and soft power. Brexit could therefore undermine any future development of serious EU military capabilities.
4) The EU would lose an influential, liberalising member, shifting the balance of power in the European Council. It would become harder to block illiberal measures.
5) EU policy-makers, already overburdened with problems like the Greek economy, instability in the European neighbourhood and influxes of refugees, must now find extra energy to handle the complexities of the Brexit talks, which may drag on for five years or longer.
6) It will also make Germany even more preponderant in EU. In recent years both France’s weakness and the UK’s semi-detached status have made Germany the dominant country in the EU. On issues such as the eurozone crisis, refugees and the war in Ukraine, Germany has determined the EU’s response.

Economic Impact
1) Brexit may adversely impact Europe’s fragile growth. Rapid depreciation of already weakened Euro will impact competitiveness of EU market.
2) It may weaken economic muscle of EU as the UK is the fifth largest economy in the world and the second largest in the EU. Its net contribution to the EU budget was around £8.5bn in 2015, which EU stands to lose.

3) Some research studies have predicted a symmetric decline in exports to and imports from the UK would lead to reduction of EU’s GDP. Subsequently, trade growth would likely be lower than otherwise, increasing the potential losses over time. The damage would be a bit more severe in the manufacturing hubs in central and Eastern Europe as well as in the tourism hotspots in the Mediterranean.
4) Moreover, there would likely be a new regulatory dynamic with the UK outside the EU. The UK may seek to undercut the EU on standards impacting on the business environment; but this in turn may create a healthy regulatory competition by putting pressure on the EU from the outside to be more liberal in its policies.
5) The Brexit impact on the rest of the EU via trade and finance will also depend on the follow-on agreement between it and the UK. A number of models exist: Norway’s, Iceland’s, and Liechtenstein’s European Economic Area (EEA) or Switzerland’s European Free Trade Area (EFTA) agreement or A Turkish-style customs union or Free trade agreements such as those with Mexico or South Korea. The extension of such agreements to the UK may face political obstacles, but at least the economic damage could be minimised.
• So in the final analysis, The economic and financial frictions could be limited if both parties would try to strike an amicable separation agreement, but political considerations, including the desire of the rest of the EU to prevent Brexit emulation, might result in a far more damaging outcome for both.
• Brexit affects the rupee through both trade and the financial channels. The UK and European Union account for 23.7% of the rupee’s effective exchange rate. The UK’s exit could lead to a prolonged period of risk aversion in the equity markets which could spark foreign portfolio investor outflows and add to the rupee’s weakness.
• India is the third largest source of FDI to the UK .Access to European markets is therefore a key driver for Indian companies coming to the UK. But with Brexit, this benefit will be taken away and may result in companies relocating their business set ups to other places. So may have a bearing on future investment decisions.
• Hence, Indian investment pattern in EU might change as Indian companies favoured border free access to EU, which will not remain available after Brexit.
• Automobile, Pharma and IT might be the most affected. NASSCOM has predicted that the effect of Brexit will be felt on the $108 Billion Indian IT sector in the short term. Leading Indian IT firms foresee a possibility of renegotiations for all the ongoing IT projects because of the devaluation in the value of pound.
• In the automobile industry, Brexit may lead to reduction in sales and companies that derive good revenues of profits from Britain could get hurt majorly. India's pharmaceutical sector has significant exposure to the UK and a drop in demand in the UK and the EU will impact profits and sales.
• There are many unanswered questions regarding Brexit – Whether the Brexit will change the rules of doing business or the rules related to access to higher education.
• However for some experts, in the long run, Brexit will help strengthen our ties with Britain because India's focus on innovation and entrepreneurship still makes it an attractive destination for outsourcing and investment. Brexit means redrafting of India-EU FTA text.
• EU was considered as biggest obstacle to U.K – India trade. Last year, Indian mango shipment to U.K. were banned due to stringent EU regulations. Brexit might lead to realisation of trade potential between these two countries.

Effect on Education sector/students & Travel:
• British universities were forced to offer scholarships and subsidies to the citizens of the UK and EU. Brexit frees up funds for the other students and more Indian students might be able to get scholarships. Reduction in pound value will reduce travelling cost to the UK and will make it a good travel destination.

During the visit of Indian PM to UK in November 2015, the following announcements relating to education were made:
·         2016 would be the UK-India year of Education, Research and Innovation. This will highlight the strengths of the bilateral relationship, drive further collaboration, including a range of digital technology enabled education and training initiatives, so that both countries create a new 21st century framework as partners in education, research and innovation partners, in the global context.
·         Virtual partnerships would be initiated at the school level to enable young people of one country to experience the school system of the other.
·         3rd phase of the UK India Education and Research Initiative will be launched and mutual recognition of UK and Indian qualifications will be done.
• For Indian students UK has traditionally been a favourite destination. Management, computing, engineering, media studies, art and design are the preferred courses of the Indian students. At present, there are approximately 20,000 Indian students pursuing Undergraduate and Postgraduate courses in the UK.
• Global Initiative of Academic Network (GIAN) is a new network in Higher Education in India aimed at tapping the talent pool of eminent scientists and academicians, internationally to encourage their engagement with the Institutes of Higher Education in India.UK has committed to send 100 academicians to India over the next two academic years as part of the GIAN.

Cultural Relations
• Cultural linkages between India and UK are deep and extensive, arising out of shared history between the two countries. There has been a gradual mainstreaming of Indian culture and absorption of Indian cuisine, cinema, languages, religion, philosophy, performing arts, etc.
• The Nehru Centre is the cultural wing of the High Commission of India in UK which was established in 1992, and is currently one of ICCR’s flagship cultural centres abroad.
• A Memorandum of Understanding on Cultural Cooperation was signed between India and the UK in 2014.
• On the 70th anniversary of Indian Independence (2017), UK-India Year of Culture will be organised in 2017 to celebrate our deep cultural ties and mark.

Indian Diaspora
• Indian diaspora is well represented across all walks of life in the UK. The achievements cross everything from business to sport, and science and politics.
• The India Diaspora in UK is one of the largest ethnic minority communities in the country, with the 2011 census recording approximately 1.5 million people of Indian origin in the UK equating to almost 1.8 percent of the population and contributing 6% of the country’s GDP.